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2009 Lyme-Induced Autism Conference


Report from the Lyme-Induced Autism Conference of 2009

downloadPublished in Explore! For the Professional
September, 2009

Reprinted with permission of author

By Mary Budinger

A toxic soup of heavy metals, EMF pollution, chemicals, and the body’s own toxins produced by disease, is turning long-familiar microorganisms into super stars of destruction. Combined with junk food and a chemical-laden environment, they all add up to the perfect storm where perhaps a few types of biotoxins are produced in us in unprecedented rates.
Pathogenic bugs - be they bacterial, viral, fungal or/and parasitic - are competing with us for survival. They are cunning adversaries, fluent in serious disruption for their own gain. They thrive on common staples in our modern world – sugar, denatured and genetically modified foods, chemicals, stress, and electromagnetic pollution.

So far, the bugs have proven more adaptable and simply smarter at survival than most of us. The mounting evidence is in our children:

arrowThe CDC reports that 1 out of every 6 children has a diagnosis of a developmental problem.

arrowCancer is now the leading cause of death in children, aged 1-14. The National Children’s Cancer Society says 1 in 330 children will develop cancer by age 20.

arrowAccording to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (July 2007), “new epidemics in chronic health conditions among children and youth will translate into major demands on public health and welfare in the coming decades.” The study found “from 15 to 18 percent of children and adolescents have some sort of chronic health condition, nearly half of whom could be considered disabled.”

The Lyme-Induced Autism Foundation’s annual conference is an opportunity for doctors and parents working in the trenches of chronic disease to compare notes on what they are seeing. As that took place this past June in Scottsdale, Arizona, there were differing opinions about specific pathogens and treatments, but there was universal agreement that a “perfect storm” of environmental elements is weakening the human immune system.

“For some reason or another, the cases are getting more difficult,” said Dr. Toby Watkinson of the Scripps Medical Offices in California who has been in practice some 28 years. “It used to be we said, gluten-free, dairy-free, and got good results. But that is not so much the case now.”

Author Donna Jackson Nakazawa sounded a wake-up call with her 2008 book, the Autoimmune Epidemic. “We have been waging an all out war on cancer for decades,” she said. “But a woman is eight times more likely to have an autoimmune disease than breast cancer. Our own immune system is being asked to distinguish between itself and invaders and it is overloaded. Too many mistakes are being made because of the plethora of environmental chemicals. In the international community, scientists talk about the impact of the chemicals as global warming, yet we do not admit that there is a sea of change also taking place in human bodies.”

Immune system dysfunction is on the rise because immune system competency is withering under an assault of toxicity and pathogens.

A Texas study showed that the closer kids live to coal-fired power plants and the associated exposures to airborne mercury, the higher the rates of autism.[1] Many believe mercury holds a special place among environmental toxins. “Mercury, in my experience, is the one thing that most fuels the growth of pathogens,” Dr. Lee Cowden of Texas stated. “It is found in greater amounts in the ocean and the air. It is slow to detoxify.”

And, it has a synergistic effect. “When you put mercury and lead together and it is not 1 + 1 = 2. No, it is 1 + 1 = 100 times more toxic,” Dr. Jeff Wulfman of Vermont explained. “Modern medicine tries to isolate one factor but there is never just one.”

Dr. Cowden believes the primary cause of autism is brain inflammation, pointing the finger of blame at a wide swath of toxic exposures. “We know the fetus becomes a dumping ground for the mother’s toxins. If the mother had mercury fillings, she downloads a lot of that mercury directly into the unborn child. In time come the co-contributors – the other heavy metals, fungal toxins, as well as the body’s own toxins produced by disease, electromagnetic fields (EMF), nutritional deficiencies, miasms, hormone imbalances (children with high testosterone levels are more likely to develop autism), ergots, neurotransmitter imbalances, and emotions.”

It is worth repeating one item on his list; “the body’s own toxins produced by disease.” Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt of Washington reminds us that biotoxins secreted by the bugs usually make us sicker than the bugs themselves. When the level of biotoxins becomes high enough, people will be symptomatic. Throw an antibiotic at the bugs, chances are they just spit their biotoxins at you, making you feel sicker.

Dr. Klinghardt says many of the autistic kids he sees have kryptopyrroluria (KPU), also called HPU. “Basically, these kids are peeing out all their zinc,” he said. “The bugs figured out how to block an enzyme to make you pee out your zinc and disarm your immune system. It is genius! Some 300 enzymes are zinc dependent. If you have no zinc, the body substitutes cadmium or lead or aluminum or mercury. When the substitution is made, the child becomes highly toxic.”

Pathogens also attract metals. For example, the coxsackievirus B3 infection increases the intestinal absorption of cadmium.[2]


Dr. Klinghardt pioneered the integration of low frequency magnetic and electric fields into his practice. “Any adult Lyme patient has had a preceding issue with mold,” he said. “We all harbor molds - Candida, aspergillus, etc. We are now exposing these molds to record amounts of EMF bombardment. Since 1995, with cell phones and Wi-Fi, the amount of EMF has gone up exponentially. This causes the molds to maximize their production. I worked with a key mold researcher in Switzerland who could measure the amount of mycotoxins produced on a daily basis. One culture we protected with a Faraday cage, the other we left in the room. Three weeks later, we measured. The unprotected culture had 600 times more mycotoxins.”

Dr. Klinghardt feels an important test for autistic kids is a mycotoxins urine test. “It is surprising how high the kids test. Many of us were looking at mold years before Lyme got so much attention. The microbes that lived in us symbiotically for tens of thousands of years are feeling under attack. This is what is creating autism, symptoms of Lyme, the learning disabilities, ALS, Parkinson’s, short term memory loss, insomnia - it all goes back to a few biotoxins in us produced in unprecedented rates.”

Every cordless phone, every wireless internet and cell phone, every refrigerator, and every nightstand lamp and clock radio - much modern day technology that we take for granted - is insidiously jacking up the rates of all manner of chronic disease.

“The only thing that I have ever been able to predict is that the mother who has an autistic child slept in a high EMF environment,” he said.

Bau biologist Vicki Warren of Tennessee also makes the connection between EMF and cellular health. She has seen many autistic children improve only after all electricity and radio signals were removed from their immediate environment while they sleep. “For whatever reason, a number of the Lyme and autistic kids are hypersensitive to electrosmog,” she said. “EHS - electric hypersensitivity - is recognized as a syndrome in UK and Sweden. There are two theories about EHS. First, the microbes within the body think they are under attack and so they start proliferating/replicating and producing toxins. Second, our healthy cells also feel like they are under attack so they lock down and close their cells walls which inhibits their ability to expel toxins and take in nutrients. So the healthy cells die off early and the bad stuff grows rapidly. It’s a double whammy.”

Our bodies are electric. But the energy from electrosmog is a very chaotic energy, not the same as what the body uses. “Every nerve impulse in the body is an electric current,” said Dr. Sandra Rose Michael of Florida. “Every cell is a mini-battery. When the body has the right energy, it will heal anything. When the cells have more energy, the first thing they do is clean house. True cellular regeneration is what we want to accomplish.”

Dr. Watkinson sees that many kids have a lack of connectivity in the brain. “These children are at risk in electrical environments,” he said. “There is always a Th1, Th2, Th3 disruption. They all have cognitive dysfunction, can’t compute what you tell them. You tell them to raise their hand or ask for a glass of milk. But they end up waving their arm and asking about the pink gorilla. They can’t complete the neurological connections.”

Genetically modified (GM) foods seem to be contributing to intestinal dysfunctions, and the bulk of the immune system is in the gut. Jeffery Smith, author of Seeds of Deception and Executive Director of Institute for Responsible Technology, pointed out that no safety studies were ever done on GM foods. “The FDA simply declared in May 1992 that ‘foods derived by these no methods do not differ from other foods in any meaningful or uniform way,'” Smith explained. “They promised us it was safe because plant genes do not transfer to bacteria in our intestines. But the genes put into GM crops come from bacteria so the natural safety mechanism is gone. We may be turning our intestines into living pesticide factories.”

The “FlavrSavr” tomato was the first GM food. “When they fed it to rats, the animals developed stomach lesions and died,” Smith said, noting the number of autistic children who have gut issues. Like EMF, he said, “GM food doesn’t have immediate, crisis-type warning signs. But we are playing roulette with our health.”

The invisible contributions of GM foods, chaotic electrical signals - and biofilms - are new areas of study, and potentially huge factors in human illness.


Biofilm is a slimy matrix pathogens use like a cloaking device to hide from the immune system. The Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia, for example, creates biofilm. Entire colonies of pathogens take up housekeeping in patches of biofilm. Candida, for example, is usually in the mix, stimulating inflammation to provide food for the colony of bugs. And here’s the kicker: pathogens within a biofilm community are 100 to 1000 times more antibiotic resistant. That may explain why chronic Lyme suffers are not cleared of their disease after months, even years of antibiotics.

Biofilm requires formation of fibrin and hijacks the body’s safety net. Fibrin is part of the body’s attempt to stop pathogens. But when biofilm creates excess fibrin, the blood gets thick and is less efficient at carrying oxygen and delivering nutrients. “We found when we gave patients heparin for infertility, we saw a lot of chronic symptoms go away,” recounted Dr. David Berg of Arizona. That is because Heparin blocks the action of clotting factors in the blood which often addresses this hypercoaguble state. With less fibrin, the immune system may be better able to see the pathogens.

The immune system recognizes a bug by antigens, proteins on the outer membrane. “So what if the bugs didn’t produce outer membrane proteins (OMP)? These bugs don’t,” said Dr. Anju Usman of Illinois. She reported that biofilm uses fibrin, iron, calcium, and magnesium to create its lattice. She reports success dismantling biofilm with EDTA, nattokinase, and serrapeptase.

Should we deprive sick patients of iron, calcium and magnesium because they make up biofilm? “Magnesium is very necessary; it also happens to be one of the building blocks used by biofilm,” said Dr. Garry Gordon of Arizona. “The risk to benefit ratio doesn’t make sense if you pull out the magnesium. When you are low in magnesium, it ties into greater death rates.”


Dr. Wulfman said diagnosis of chronic infection is difficult. “Classic Lyme disease - the person had no prior infection, got a tick bite - I don’t see that as much anymore. I am not comfortable with ‘Lyme disease’ to cover this entire spectrum of illness related to Borrelia. As we see more coming out about the ubiquitous nature of organisms in people today, I see us and the community of microbes within us, and our immune system, trying to manage that. It is a constant tug and pull.”

Perhaps we need to reconsider the conventional wisdom about infections. “Autism kids are 16 times more likely to have bacterial/viral infections than neurotypical children,” said Dr. Wulfman. “I believe most all of the kids on the spectrum have some form of fungal involvement. As well, in my experience about 80% seem to show bacteria on the stained blood smear.”

The idea that a large variety of different pathogens are responsible for a long list of illnesses is further defined by the idea that a few biotoxins, produced in unprecedented rates, are causing a wide variety of different manifestations of disease.

Dr. Stephen Fry of Arizona, known for his research into biofilms, thinks the day is not far off when his team will identify a single microorganism, hiding in biofilm, that is responsible for symptoms associated with many expressions of chronic disease, including autism and Lyme disease.

“As we see more coming out about the ubiquitous nature of organisms in people today, I see us and the community of microbes within us, and our immune system, trying to manage that. It is a constant tug and pull.”– Dr. Jeff Wulfman
Lyme induced conference

“We looked at the blood from various patients under the microscope and we find signs of this one microorganism in many samples from patients ill with chronic Lyme,” Dr. Fry said. “It is an elongated microorganism in the biofilm that stains like bacteria, and looks like bacteria in people who are sick. We’ve mapped three of its genes so far.”

How could one bug cause so many different diagnoses and symptoms? “In the biofilm community, there is a soup of pathogens where they all hide,” he explained. “Any one of those pathogens may not be why you are sick. For example, just about everybody over 35 will test positive for Epstein-Barr virus, but people usually are not sick from it. So not every bug in the biofilm soup is causing symptoms. Symptoms may vary based upon a person’s genetics, environment, and pathogen genotype.”

We live in a symbiotic relationship with our community of bugs. For example, eradication of Helicobacter pylori may have had the unintended consequence of unleashing an asthma threat even as the risk of gastric ulcers and cancer declined.[3] Sometimes it is a matter of how much bacteria is on board. So the aim of treatment may not be necessarily about eradicating all the bugs.

Whether we are sick or well depends upon how strong we are in relation to the pathogenic load within us.


Western medicine is based upon Louis Pasteur’s germ theory of disease: germs invade pristine territory and we fight back vigorously with killing agents. Yet even Pasteur changed his tune in his lifetime. He admitted on his deathbed that the terrain was more important than the pathogen, but by then the medical textbooks had been written, setting the stage for warfare with pharmaceutical weapons of mass destruction.

Now, the AMA reports that prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death in the United States.[4] And the superbug MRSA shows us again that pathogens will supersede our weapons of mass destruction in their quest for survival.

“The terrain is everything, the pathogen is nothing,” Pasteur finally concluded. That explains why one person is extremely symptomatic with Lyme disease and other is not. And why one kid develops autism after vaccinations and another does not. The French-American microbiologist Rene Dubos was more on target with his concept that most diseases occur as a result of multiple assaults acting simultaneously, as opposed to a single event.

Dubos’ concept mirrors the idea that manifestation of chronic diseases represents the straw that breaks the camel’s back. One too many environmental assaults and the immune system gets overloaded.

“The more chronic parasitic infections someone has, the more weak/toxic/depleted they are, and vice versa, so it spirals,” Dr. Wulfman explained. “Plus you can get a new infection from the outside, and a present infection can be reactivated.”

“Perhaps autism is merely a disease of the biological terrain that will one day supersede the out-dated germ theory of disease,” suggested Mary Coyle, DiHom, of New York. “At some point, we have to consider that pharmaceutical meds, after time, weaken the patient so that the pathogens get the edge up. Yeast and microbes are actually there to heal the body.”

Along with the germ theory came the quest for a diagnosis, a label that that tells the doctor what the fix is.

It is telling that it is harder to come by a good diagnosis. Donna Jackson Nakazawa documented that an autoimmune patient sees, on average, six doctors prior to receiving an accurate diagnosis. Lyme disease patients have absolute horror stories about getting a diagnosis, as evidenced in the movie, Under Our Skin. Autism is easier to diagnose, but comes with so many variations. And none is easy to “fix.”

Dr. Wulfman feels smart pathogens necessitate a different approach to doctoring. “We need to avoid the ‘tyranny of tests’ where the doctor makes a declaration about that person. Our testing is not that great. The way some people are treated is unconscionable; they are told ‘This is the way it is.’ I don’t think medical professionals can say that. There is no cookbook.”

“The microbes that lived in us symbiotically for tens of thousands of years are feeling under attack. This is what is creating autism, symptoms of Lyme, the learning disabilities, ALS, Parkinsons, short term memory loss, insomnia…”– Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt
lyme disease

Dr. Gordon agrees. “We are all hoping for the magic bullet, some pill that will take us out of the morass of ill health. But that won’t happen,” he said. “We would love to have a test for all toxins, all hormones deficiencies, but in many cases, we don’t have great tests or they are very expensive. And that is not really important. Pathogens only show up when there is a toxic environment for them to grow in. That is what we need to focus on.”

The primary underpinning of a healthy terrain is a healthy diet. But processed, devitalized food is a big part of the problem. The primary source of calories consumed in USA today is GM corn syrup. Next is white flour. Some 70 years ago, Otto Warburg was awarded a Nobel Prize for figuring out that cancer cells use a lot more sugar than healthy cells. Today we see that pathogens also use a lot of sugar. Carbohydrate cravings for bread, pasta, chips, and cookies are common among autistic children.

Although some people are proponents of raw food, Dr. Klinghardt suggests that we may be too weakened now for much of it. “I lived in India for 2 years and any kind of raw food made me sick - parasites, inflammatory bowel,” he said. “It took me 20 years to get stabilized. So be warned about the raw food thing. The book that really needs to be written about autism is about getting the food into the kids without a struggle so they will want to eat it. The kids’ senses are so derailed from what their needs are. If you let them select, they will eat sugar from morning to night.”

“Food and drink are one of the major overlooked and ignored contributors to chronic disease that I see,” said Dr. Wulfman. “We have an epidemic of omega-3 deficiency. Demineralized soil means crops are sick, fatigued, and kept alive with fertilizers and pesticides… and so are we. Never has there been the excess of sugars, never the level of toxins or the numbers of vaccinations before. And there is a ubiquitous heavy metal load underneath this. Metals in people today are many thousand times higher than in ‘ancient’ man. Never has there been the progressive immune challenges and chronic parasitic infections. This is the perfect storm.”


Every speaker at the LIA conference contributed elements to the “perfect storm” breeding chronic disease:

arrowVitamin D upregulates some 3000 genes that keep us healthy, but the conventional wisdom scared us away from the sun. Obese people need a lot more vitamin D because toxins are held in fat cells. Until recently, sunscreens only blocked UVB which we need to make vitamin D; UVA causes cancer. So sunscreens actually contributed to cancer. - Dr. Joseph Mercola of Illinois

arrowEveryone born today has 1000 times more lead in the bones. As the mother creates a fetus, the calcium from the mother is used to make bones in the fetus but the lead is in the bones and it is downloaded too. - Dr. Garry Gordon

arrowThe Environmental Working Group’s study of umbilical cord blood shows that a steady stream of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides crosses the placenta. An average of 200 industrial chemicals and pollutants were found in umbilical cord blood samples. - Dr. Toby Watkinson

arrowThe birth history of sick children is often complicated. “I am amazed at how much heavy metal toxicity little children have at 5-6 years of age.” - Dr. Ann Corson of Pennsylvania

arrowAllergies are often unresolved bacterial infections. - Dr. Watkinson

arrowHalf your immune system is wasted if it is trying to handle something it is sensitive to like gluten. - Dr. Gordon

arrowViruses can be a primary infection, but their activation (vs. dormancy) may be secondary to immune stressors/weakening brought about by underlying bacterial infections, toxins, etc. - Dr. Wulfman

arrowAcidic pH is very common, encouraging proliferation of microorganisms and reducing cellular energy. - Mary Coyle, D.I. Hom. of New York

arrowThere is a high prevalence of familial thrombophilia where at least one family member has an autism spectrum disorder. - Dr. David Berg

arrowPesticide exposure impairs cognitive development. - Vicki Warren

arrowThese kids have a shopping list of issues that are inter-related to the nervous system. The nervous system will sometimes sacrifice certain functions to make other functions work. Photons of light run our biochemistry. The nervous system is a holographic communication and can be treated with light. - Dr. George Gonzalez of California


Parasites, a marker of persistent infection, are survival specialists. “To survive, pathogens have to alter the human immune system,” Dr. Wulfman explained. “We can see some of the complex ways they do that. They create inflammation to help break up tissue which they consume. Then there are complex competitions between the parasites within the host. Parasites use quorum sensing to detect what other bugs are there, how many, and then adjust what they do. They have the ability to make biofilm. And they can alter gene expression and suppress host immunity.”

Epigenetics is reshaping the way scientists look at traditional genetics. We are finding that chemical exposures, toxins, and infections - mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence - can drastically alter how the genes behave or express themselves. These changes may remain through cell divisions for the remainder of the cell’s life and may also last for multiple generations. A study out of China in 2003 on tuberculosis, for example, found cells infected with TB organism changed 473 new expressions of genes.[5]

“When you hear about genes then, is this the cause or a marker?” Dr. Wulfman asks.

Whether we are sick or well depends upon how strong we are in relation to the pathogenic load within us.
lyme disease

Duke University’s Dr. Randy Jirtle is shaking traditional hallowed halls with research into changes that can be inherited during cell division that alter the function of genes without changing the hardware, or the DNA sequences. So what is the implication for a common chemical from plastic like bisphenol A (BPA), a relatively strong estrogenic compound which can alter the epigenome? “Jirtle found that this environmental toxicant caused hypomethylation,” said Dr. Gordon. “BPA has been found to cause an epigenic change in mice from lean to obese. Jirtle also found nutrient supplementation of the mother helped to counteract the BPA-induced hypomethylation.” It gives new meaning to the concept that food is medicine. Nutrition is not a big item in med school and that is a big part of the problem. Early nutrition affects adult metabolism in humans and other mammals, potentially via persistent alterations in DNA methylation.[6]

Mapping genes is not of much interest to this group. Many have been there, done that. It’s a curiosity, but not particularly useful. The more interesting questions revolve around whether today’s perfect storm will ripple through forthcoming generations. The science of epigenetics tells us that toxins are trans-generational. The old expression, “You are what you eat,” is giving way to, “You are what your mother ate.”

Dr. Klinghardt advises that you look at the genes last. “Not at the beginning, and not instead of some other tests,” he advises. “You can never get a Lyme patient well unless you start with detoxification. That is also true of all chronic diseases. I learned to look at the whole family. We detox first, then address infections.”

Dr. Gordon, a leader in the field of detoxification, agrees. He points out that, “The world wants to do a test on you, then sell you something based on the results. But it’s a bad model. And it’s too complicated and expensive. The easiest place to start is with colloidal silver to knock down the pathogen load, and zeolite to remove the metals. We need tools in our toolbox that do not harm us.”


Intelligent pathogens adapt to changes in their environment. Lyme disease, for example, used to be a “tick borne disease.” No longer. According to Dr. Cowden, it is now transmitted through mosquitoes, fleas, sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, trans-placenta to fetus, breast feeding, and via poorly cooked meats. “So rather than ask your young patients if they’ve ever had a tick bite, ask if they’ve had a mosquito bite,” advised Dr. Klinghardt. “Look at the mother for clinical signs of Lyme disease and its co-infections. Most of the autistic children are cases of Lyme disease contracted congenitally.”

“A sick planet produces sick kids,” said homeopath Mary Coyle. “These kids cannot detox what they downloaded as a fetus from their mothers, plus what they get on their own. The stress is us. We are exposed to ongoing stress on a daily basis. Pesticides, chlorine, carpet glues in school every day. So you have to keep cleaning them up. My kid was too sick, the cells too full of toxins, for the gluten-free diet to help him recover. You need to get to the subtle energy fields before you go to the biochemical level.”

Cleaning up the environment and the diet are not easy subjects to teach, and not easy for patients to integrate. “The vast majority of our culture has traded health for convenience,” said Dr. Mercola. “We need to learn not to buy things that move us toward disease instead of health. And we need to prepare foods from scratch.” Dr. Wulfman asks some of his patients to keep a food diary. He finds some parents have made the switch to gluten-free pancakes, cereal, and cookies, but still fail to realize that those foods are not loaded with vitamins, minerals, and enzymes. Switching to a gluten-free diet is not the same as fixing fresh, home-cooked meals. He advises his patients to grow their own garden, even a small box type.

Dr. Klinghardt finds it takes a great deal of patience to teach. “I have more recoveries by percentage than other practitioner I know by simply addressing the issue of avoiding EMF while sleeping at night. But I find it takes an autistic family three years to hear me on the issue.”

Dr. Gordon points out that it is frustrating for patients that the medical profession has been slow to put the pieces of the puzzle together. “Your doctor probably does not know, for example, that we all have some form of toxoplasmosis which increases your uptake of heavy metals. When you are infected with Chlamydia pneumonia, you are more likely to become a sick person. Many doctors don’t know enough about mycoplasma. It isn’t a question of whether you have Lyme or not. You have a total load of pathogens. Know that they are adversely affecting you and probably your children and their children.”


Dr. Wulfman said he learned a lot from organic farmers. “What shows up when there is poor soil, inadequate water, etc., is infection. The weaker the organism, the more vulnerable to virus, bacteria, parasite – whatever.”

Our bodies are walking Superfund sites. And our world is not getting any less toxic. The California Medical Association forecast that the scale of industrial chemical production is expected to grow four-fold by 2050.[7] Add to that, the expected increase of electrosmog, and the marketing push for genetically modified foods.

“The stuff we give these kids squirts right through them because they don’t have the right bacteria in the gut,” summarized Dr. Gordon. “You can’t overcome, can’t kill all the pathogens because they are coming in every direction. We need to focus on what we can do to keep the bad stuff out.”


Book: Myth of Alzheimers, by Peter Whitehouse
Book: Plague Time-the New Germ Theory of Disease, by Paul W. Ewald
Book: UltraMind Solution, by Dr. Mark Hyman
Book: Square Foot Gardening, by Mel Bartholomew

[2] Glynn A.W., Lind Y., et al; The intestinal absorption of cadmium increases during a common viral infection(coxsackie virus B3) in mice. Chem. Biol. Interact., 113(1): 79-89 (1998).
[4] B Starfield, Is US Health Really the Best in the World?, Journal American Medical Association, July 26, 2000;284(4):483-5
2009 Lyme-Induced Autism Conference